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July 2009

Is the Universe Conscious?

A picture of the pillars of creation.

Is the Universe conscious? and if so, what are the implications of this to humanity? We will begin a journey into the amazing world of consciousness studies, starting from the Cosmos, to the non-living, to the cellular, and to the human being. What is consciousness? Why is understanding it very important to humanity? Is there an afterlife? Roger Sperry, the neuroscientist and the Nobel laureate has said that, Consciousness studies is crucial to the survival of humanity.

Since the dawn of humanity, humankind has been exploring and developing various concepts and beliefs about God and the universe. Views vary from religion to religion, and with different schools of yoga, mysticism, philosophy, and quantum physics. But, over the past decade there has been increasing scientific evidence to strongly suggest that there does exist in the universe, a superforce (referred to by various names, such as God) which pervades the cosmos and influences our lives, and which we each need to understand, attune with, experience, and even love; if we wish to experience success, happiness and health.

Of course, there are contrary views, which hold that there is no such thing — that it belief in a superforce is a mental construct with no basis in fact. Why are there such oppositions? If in fact there is a supeforce in this universe, then it is critical that humanity explore this issue. And, if it does exist, what does this mean for each of us, and how can one come to know this conscious universe or God? How does reincarnation and the afterlife relate to this?

In the next several publications, we will explore various concepts of God or this superforce from the following perspectives: Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, mysticism, philosophy, psychology, quantum physics, and Sikhism.

Before we do this however, its crucial to understand the important concept of paradigms or world views which determine how we see things, how we investigate, and how come to know anything.

According to Swami Ajaya, in his excellent book Psychotherapy East and West: A Unifying Paradigm,today our world views are based on four major paradigms: The reductionist, humanistic, dualistic, and the monistic. They reflect distinct philosophical positions regarding the fundamental states of existence and our world. Here are some highlights and excerpts for this outstanding book.

The ReductIonistic Paradigm

A complex phenomenon is to be understood by breaking it down into its more basic material components (e.g., psychological phenomena can be understood in terms of biology, and biological occurrences can be understood in terms of chemical and physical events).

  • A) Consciousness is not primary; rather, it is the result of the interaction of material entities. It may be considered an epiphenomenon.
  • B) The methods developed in the classical physical sciences are the most useful for studying psychological phenomena. These include: sensory observation, isolation of component parts for analytic study, and the study of antecedent causes. The mechanic has certain preconceptions and relates to the machine in a particular way:
    • a) He starts with an effect and looks for the cause.
    • b) He isolates the components and examines them separately, seeking the component that in functioning abnormally. Finding it, he returns it to normal functioning.
    • c) If the problem is in a component that he is not an expert in correcting, e.g., the cars computer or a bent frame, the mechanic may turn the task over to a specialist.
    • d) The mechanic works on the machine while the machine remains at rest or while it goes on functioning as it has been. The machine is the passive recipient of being fixed.

The Humanistic Paradigm

Is based on the following assumptions: The individual human experience is unique and must be studied and valued in its own right rather than reducing it to any sort of components, or regarding it as inferior to any other phenomena or mode of experience.

  • A. The experience of the individual is primary. The psychologist must relate to the unique world and experience of each individual rather than impose a general theory upon an individual, which devalues his personal experience.
  • B. Each human being in motivated toward actualizing his latent potentials for uniquely human experiences.

Both Freud and the behaviorists were considerably influenced by the physical and biological sciences of their time. They attempted to use mechanistic conceptions and methods from physics to study and explain human functioning. Both psychologies were also influenced by Darwins theory of evolution. This led to the view that human behavior and experience emerged from animal behavior and to the attempt to understand human beings in terms of more primitive modes of function. The humanistic psychologists rallied against this limited perspective and established a third force, which focuses on those uniquely human qualities that are ignored, denied, or devalued in reductionist psychologies.

Humanistic psychology has become a major movement with many enthusiastic followers. The founders of this movement include such renowned theorists and therapists as Kurt Goldstein, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Erich Fromm and Rollo May.

Humanism had a long tradition before the rise of humanistic psychology in the middle of the 20th century. It awakened in the Renaissance to give man a new sense of freedom from the medieval order. It has awakened in modern psychology to free man from the reductive conceptions about the nature of human beings. Humanism recognizes the value or dignity of man and makes him the measure of all things. The humanistic orientation in psychology has contributed considerably to an enhanced view of the nature and potentials of the human being by focusing one experiences that are uniquely human and cannot be adequately explained in terms of more primitive levels of organization. Humanistic psychology occupies a position between the reductionist paradigm, and the dualistic paradigm, with its interest in transcendent consciousness.

While humanistic psychologies emphasize such qualities as self-actualization and seek to bring out the best in human beings, they do not fully reach upward toward a transcendent or universal consciousness, for they fail to recognize the existence of such a mode of consciousness.

The Dualistic Paradigm

In contrast to the humanistic perspective, dualistic psychologies, both ancient and modern, conceive of a consciousness that transcends human experience. The dualistic models are based on the following basic assumption: The universe is fundamentally made up of interacting complementary qualities. Both material phenomena and consciousness exist as the fundamental duality.

  • A.  Human existence is that of an individualized, delimited consciousness involved with material phenomena.
  • B.A transcendent consciousness also exists, which is unidentified with material phenomena.
  • C. The individualized consciousness is evolving toward a more complete experience of transcendent consciousness.
  • D. The individualized consciousness can never fully experience the comprehensive or transcendent consciousness.
  • E. To the extent that the individualized consciousness involves itself with the material phenomena, it will experience a mixture of pleasure and pain; to the extent that a human being realizes or positively relates to a more transcendent state of consciousness, he experiences such qualities as joy, contentment, knowledge, and truth.

The Monistic Paradigm

While dualistic psychology posits two fundamental principles that interact to create the universe, the fourth system to be studied the monistic paradigm begins with the assumption that there is only one fundamental principle, consciousness. The monistic paradigm rests on the following premises: Unitary consciousness is all that exists.

  • A. The phenomenal world appears to exist, but it is merely an illusory manifestation of unitary consciousness. The phenomenal world is insubstantial. It may be thought of as a mirage or a dream existence.
  • B. When one ignores the universal consciousness, the phenomenal world appears to be substantial and is taken as a something rather than the negation, which it is.
  • C. Manifestations of universal consciousness have identified with the phenomenal world, but are engaged in the process of recognizing themselves as the universal consciousness.

To further contrast the dualistic and monistic paradigms, it is useful to distinguish between the terms monotheism and monism. Theism refers to the belief in a god and mono of course means one; monotheism refers to the conception that there is only one universal consciousness, God. In a monotheistic belief system, God remains separate from the individual whom He has created. The individual worships God and remains subservient to God. But monism does not refer to belief in a god. Rather it is the conception that there is only one existence, one consciousness that is universal. In this system, there is neither the worshiper nor the worshiped, for what may have appeared to be two is actually one. There is only one. This fourth paradigm is the least commonsensical yet most profound, and so it must be, since it takes its stand in non-sensory experience and considers sensory data to be of little value in conveying knowledge of the fundamental reality. This view is quite foreign and even unnerving both to the materialists, who consider even the theists world view wishful thinking, and to the theists, who cry heresy, delusion, and dangerwhenever anyone asserts that a human being can attain a transcendent or universal consciousness.


We will explore the God/consciousness concepts from various paradigms, philosophies, perspectives, and schools of thought. Our first approach will be from the Monistic perspective involving quantum physics, then we will explore this concept from each world religion, philosophy and mysticism.

Each paradigm gives us a different view of the world. Originally, psychology was the study of logos and the psych the study of the mind and soul. Now mainstream psychology has taken a much more scientific/statistical approach, closer to traditional physics and science. Therefore, while quantum physics, the epitome of hard science, has been going in the opposite direction towards where psychology was. Psychology has moved to where physics was/is. They are like trains going in opposite directions.

Over the past decade, several scholarly publications by top quantum physicists are now seriously discussing issues like  the conscious and spiritual universe, the superforce, consciousness, and he mind of God. We truly live in exciting times. In this publication we will begin a modern 21st century cutting edge discussion of the cosmos where it is described as an elegant quantum field with certain unique intelligent properties.

Alexander (1990) proposes that in higher stages of human development and as our spiritual consciousness evolves, so too do our morals, values, and higher dialectical and integrative thinking skills, and our care and commitment to the world.

We are better able to accept contradictions and tolerance between seemingly opposing systems. We develop a synthetic form of thinking. He further proposes that in Vedic psychology, higher stages of consciousness naturally unfold in the course of normal adult development, but that development freezes prematurely because of lack of developmental technologies.

He proposes that we need cultural amplifiers such as transcendental meditation (T.M.) to unfreeze our development. He believes that at the highest stage of cosmic consciousness, self-knowledge is now direct, and complete. There is a completely stable, expanded inner frame of reference. Thus, from a Vedic psychology perspective, a technology of consciousness is required for scientists to experientially catch up, and complete the theoretical map of the universe.

Unity consciousness may then represent a natural state of integration of knowledge and experience, capable of resolving fundamental constraints of modern reductionistic thinking. Clearly, the core doctrines and use of specific techniques used by mystics seem to be absolutely invaluable tools for exploring and elucidating consciousness.

The quantum physicist Hagelin (1989) suggests that by using the T.M. technique there is enhanced self-referral, self-sufficiency, and infinite dynamism at the physiological, psychological, ecological, and sociological levels. This exerts a positive feedback to and from the pure consciousness, and we better appreciate the pulse of this unified field. Thus, our paradigms, theories, and models would be more reflective of this unified field. That it is the direct experience of more unified and holistic levels of natural law in consciousness, which produces the desired physiological, psychological, sociological, and ecological changes.

More recently quantum physicists and other scientists have done very extensive intellectual research into the quality of pure consciousness from a quantum wave mechanics and Vedic science perspective. In my opinion, they have come uncannily close to elucidating it by suggesting that the unified field of modern theoretical physics and the field of pure conscious are identical.

When the nature and properties of this Vedic sciences pure consciousness (unified field) is investigated from a quantum wave mechanism perspective, Hagelin (1989) and Lewis (1982) suggest that we find certain essential characteristics of this unified field. Some of these are:

That pure consciousness is not the same as the common every day experience of awareness.

It has dual characteristics of existence and intelligence.

Consciousness is all that exists. All forms and phenomena in the universe which constitute various expressions  can be said to exist by virtue of its existence. The existence of this pure consciousness is an empirical reality, which is self-evident in higher states of consciousness.

The intelligence property of consciousness is associate with its self-interacting nature. It is aware of its own existence; it has a witnessing property. This is precisely the quality of dynamic intelligence that the quantum principle provides.

The precise mathematical structure of the unified field serves as an unmanifested blueprint for the entire creation; all the laws of nature governing physics at every scale are just partial reflections or derivatives of this basic mathematical structure.

This field acquires (at the quantum/mechanical level) a degree of dynamism, discrimination and creativity.

In addition to having the property of self-referral consciousness and dynamic creative intelligence, it has dynamism which all combine to give rise to patterns of vibrations or dynamics. Within this pure consciousness field there is a kind of infinite frequency of oscillation between infinity to a point a sort of opposite value/duality which gives rise to fundamental vibrations, harmony, rhythm, frequencies, overtones, resonance, and an electromagnetic spectrum spanning over 80 octaves.

Maharishi (1986) asserts that the creative process occurs entirely by itself in a self-sufficient manner as a spontaneous and inevitable consequence of the unified field itself. In fact, this entire dynamics and sequence of expression from unity to diversity can be seen as a sequentially more elaborated commentary on the nature of the atma itself. Every stage in the sequential placement of the laws of nature from the unified field, is a spontaneous and inevitable consequence of the nature of consciousness and its self-interacting dynamics. Through its sequential transformations, pure consciousness, the unified field of all the laws of nature, ultimately gives rise to manifest existence of matter. That is, it is the basic constituent of all matter and energy. Thus in the sequential growth, consciousness becomes matter. The implications of this extremely critical point will be explored in a later section.

Hagelin (1989), in an elegant paper, details how the recent quantum physics theories on the principle of spontaneously broken symmetry, Higgs mechanism, super gravity, grand-unification, super symmetry, and superstring theories together allow for the conceptual foundations of the unified field theory. He adds these theories afford for the first time a self-consistent and completely unified description of the elementary particles and forces in terms of a single, self-interacting field that of pure consciousness. He further proposes that this unified field must, itself, embody the total intelligence of natures functioning.

Vedic Science gives consciousness a unique ontological status; it is not an emergent property of matter, rather, its considered to be fundamental or a primary reality in nature. Further, that the human being, with the use of his/her nervous system, can experience this pure consciousness. Hagelin (1989) states, Vedic Science, like modern science, seeks to identify and explore the most fundamental and universal principles of intelligence at the bases of natures functioning. In addition, Vedic Science (unlike modern science) provides systematic experiential technologies which allow the direct exploration of these most fundamental and universal principles of intelligence in consciousness (p.6).

Maharishi (1986) asserts that the creative process occurs entirely by itself in a self-sufficient manner as a spontaneous and inevitable consequence of the unified field itself. In fact, this entire dynamics and sequence of expression from unity to diversity can be seen as a sequentially more elaborated commentary on the nature of the atma itself.

Every stage in the sequential placement of the laws of nature from the unified field, is a spontaneous and inevitable consequence of the nature of consciousness and its self-interacting dynamics. Through its sequential transformations, pure consciousness, the unified field of all the laws of nature, ultimately gives rise to manifest existence of mater. That is, it is the basic constituent of all matter and energy. Thus in the sequential growth, consciousness becomes matter. The implications of this extremely critical point will be explored in a later section.

That the infinite dynamics, creativity, intelligence, and self-referral properties of pure consciousness allow for the infinite variety of creation where there is continuous emergence, growth, and dissolving. The Bhagavad Gita states, curving back on my own nature, I create again and again. Consciousness creates matter and eventually matter reverts to energy (consciousness). Hence the immortality of pure consciousness. Pure consciousness is both the womb and grave of matter and its manifestations.

Orme-Johnson (1988) summarizes several important principles, which he feels now arise as a result of the pure consciousness. Some of these key principles are:

  • a) There is a unified field at the basis of all matter and energy fields, which are the fields of pure consciousness, – the cosmic psyche.
  • b) The universe emerges through the spontaneous sequential dynamic symmetry breaking of pure consciousness.
  • c) There are seven major states of consciousness.
  • d) Nature has a purpose, which is the evolution of life to higher states of consciousness. Evolution is thus twofold the evolution of matter to increasing complexity, so as to support life, and the development of higher states/stages of consciousness.

Hence we see the progression of species to express increasingly, the totalities of the cosmic psyche. The goal and end point of physical evolution is the human nervous system, which is personal cosmic bridge. It can sustain and attune with this pure consciousness and the cosmic psyche becomes fully expressed in individual life. Furthermore;

The dynamics of natural law and the dynamics of pure consciousness are identical.

It is possible to know all laws of nature by knowing the dynamics of consciousness.

Developing pure consciousness is the solution to all problems. Orme-Johnson (1988), in another exquisite article, shows several examples of how and where this self-referral, self-sufficiency, creative, dynamic, oscillating, intelligence, and infinite dynamism these qualities of the cosmic psyche can be seen in its subsystems and sub-disciplines, such as in physics, mathematics, psychology, sociology, ecology, physiology, biology, and chemistry. Thus it operates at all levels of the cosmic system. Further elegant works by Perry also provides an exquisite understanding of mutation of consciousness from a systems theory perspective, and the teachings of the perennial philosophies.

-By Dr. Ranjie Singh

Some books to check out to learn more are:

Cosmic Consciousness – Dr. M.Bucke
Dancing Wu Li Masters – Gary Zukav.
God and the New Physics – Dr. Paul Davies.
How to Know God Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjalia. – Swami Prabhavananda and Christopher Isherwood

Mind of God – Dr. Paul Davies.
Quantum Field – Michio Kaku.
Quantum Physics – Dana Zohar
Quantum Universe – Dr. Amit Goswami.
Spiritual Universe  – Dr. Fred Alan Wolfe.
Superforce  – Dr. Paul Davies.
The Book of Wisdom – Pandit Usharbudh
The Conscious Universe – Dr. Paul Davies
The Conscious Universe – Kafatos and Nadeau.

Is Genetic Engineering A Good Thing

A layout of fruits and vegetables.

Is the manipulation of genetic material, its addition, deletion, insertion to re-create, restructure or create a different (DNA/RNA) matrix, thereby creating a new phenotype a good or bad thing?

This technique is very useful to man for the following reasons:
A) Agriculture, new strains and breeds, more crop production.
B) New strains of bacteria and antibiotics.
C) Medical genetics, fetal abnormalities, to be able to remove deleterious allele(s) and splice the correct/normal one, hence diminish or eliminate abnormal (chromosomal) genotypes (the genetic makeup) and phenotypes (how the offspring actually looks). This applies to both plant and animal).

The question generally asked is, Does man have the moral right or authority to alter the genetic material of an embryo whether for removal of a deleterious allele or improvement of existing ones, thereby creating his choice of the ideal looking phenotype and genotype.

The basic question asked by religious figures and philosophers is essentially, Does man have the moral authority or right to engage in these particular scientific/genetic/biological actions. Does man have the right to make new genotype and thus create a phenotype of choice? Most would immediately argue that we are intruding on sacred ground and its not within the purview of man to do such experiments. Its interfering with Gods work. Why this reaction?
Who gives man the right to do anything? By whose authority does he build a plane, design buildings, and restructure any material object and add to its improvement? We, ourselves, give the right or moral authority. Is the right to recreate or improve a certain mechanical or material device any different from that of improving genetic material? It would seem not.
Surely humans ought to assiduously work towards developing and evolving such strategies, inventions, and devices as would enhance and assist them in dealing and coping with mundane affairs so that they are more relaxed, less stressed, more in spiritual harmony, and have more spare time. These attributes contribute to attaining a peaceful state of mind and the ability to devote more time to constructive, creative pursuits. In this way humans evolve. Thus it is the purpose, the ultimate aim behind the creation or improvement of a material thing, which would lend some degree of value to humankinds actions. A guiding principle would be that if it would assist in the evolution (in the broadest sense) of the individual and humanity then it has value it is good and we ought to give ourselves that right/responsibility/moral authority to do it. Since all actions used have karmic consequences, doesn’t intent again play a vital role?

When we remove a bad gene and splice or substitute a good one, we are in fact creating a better possibility for the offsprings manifestation and evolution. We prevent years of agony for parents, the child, and society. Health institutions save money for supportive care, which could be used in a more constructive form. This could be seen as a form of preventative medicine. Are we not merely using our knowledge of one aspect of Gods laws and enhancing humankind, adding to our physical and spiritual evolution? This aspect of genetic engineering then seems to be in accordance with Gods laws to enhance the continuity of life and to ensure that the organism continues to be. This is the whole essence and purpose of physical evolution, which normally takes millions of years. But humans, with a far better understanding of natures laws are merely assisting and fast-forwarding this law of evolution by gene inclusion and deletion to create the fittest genotypes.

Now, the other aspect is: Can we, or rather should we, attempt to enhance the genotype and phenotype of our children? What then about improving the phenotype? In addition to the foregoing arguments, should we not initially ask, Will this improvement aid humans in an evolutionary way? Is it of true value to people?
Surely, it is of immense value to humans where and when deleterious genes must be removed and added, inserted, etc. where it helps to attain a disease free state physically. Then surely it should be done. However, merely improving or changing the phenotype to give parents a transient concept of ideal beauty for their child is surely futile, expensive, misdirected and serves only to satisfy ego not humankinds higher nature. Does this phenotype by choice add to his spiritual evolution? I don’t see how. Again and again, we are confronted with that fundamental question of human kinds purpose on earth and how and where energies ought to be directed.
It seems to me that it is a waste of energy, resources, and creativity to engage in research that would ultimately serve to improve or rather change a transient vehicle to a concept of better beauty. This would, in fact, be directing energies to the mundane material plane rather than the spiritual plane. As such humans would not be maximizing their illumination or making best use of their current incarnations, which is a precious gift and opportunity from the universal cosmic mind.

In addition, some already attempt to enhance the non-physical aspects of their children by pre-natal visualization and postnatal training and education. These are well in accordance with the laws of God.

Personally, I would have to say, at the present time that in the eyes of the cosmic, phenotypic features are irrelevant. The soul personality will always be attracted to that body and environment necessary for its evolution. If people try to improve the phenotypes this could be seen as a constructive or evolutionary influence. Note that in the cosmic, even different races or racial characteristics are merely incidental to environmental influences and are no way relevant, so long as that phenotype could effectively house the soul personality, then the law is obeyed. In the cosmic psyche our human illusion constructs, such as tall, white, beautiful, blonde, dark, etc., are non-existent.

The danger here of course is that we humans confer a concept of beauty and elegance, and if it is determined that only a certain race and phenotypic qualities of that race should be propagated then it seems that, we are not being tolerant and understanding. I would think that it would not matter one iota to the cosmic if all humans are blue, pink, green, tall, ugly, or whatever, as long as the cosmic law and purpose of reincarnation can be fulfilled. Again, mans INTENT is of paramount importance.

If a person wants to create one race because he feels the others are inferior, then hes wrong. If he wants to improve certain phenotypes of his own race to create or engender an increased a sense of beauty, then he’ll forever be engaged in a futile search for the absolute beauty, which is such a relative thing.
Human knowledge and energies should be directed to those endeavors, which will enhance ones ability to be, to improve society and most of all, to enhance and improve the possibility of self-actualization, fulfilling ones mission in life, and optimizing soul personality evolution.

While people must direct their energies to issues and matters of the mundane world, greatest emphasis must be on creating those conditions, which would evolve the soul personality rather than the physical body. Sure, adequate research is required to help eliminate dangerous genes from the population, but thereafter, rather than divesting and investing so much time and money in trying to improve transient, ephemeral, illusory, material and short-lived objects, e.g. the body, would greatly accelerate spiritual evolution by using creativity, knowledge, and illumination towards making humankind more sensitive to the pulse and directions of the universal cosmic mind, to ones mission in life and to ones purpose here on earth.

This is the true economy of life.

By concentrating on frivolous issues like trying to be more beautiful, humans simply create more economic problems, more stress, more frustrations, and more disharmonies, while continuing to live superficial lives.
People must actively and passionately seek to improve their spiritual selves, even at the expense of the physical world perfection and grandeur. This is in accordance with the divine laws of God. This is precisely the purpose of incarnating. Thus, by doing so we are, in fact, assisting nature in its purpose. We are truly serving God. Everything revolves around the purpose of human kinds existence and how we should best use our privilege of objective consciousness during his lifetime (precious conscious interlude). If then, humans invest time, resources and creativity in seeking to develop the ultimate in physical evolution while neglecting the spiritual evolution, then they are wrong. A balance is required.
In future articles, we will explore the following special topics:

a) Spontaneous Remissions and Miracle Cures.
b) Euthanasia.
c) Coping with Bereavement.
d) Cloning.
e) The Psychology of Precognition and Prediction (seeing the future).
f) Telepathy
g) Reincarnation concepts

-By Dr. Ranjie Singh

Overview of ADHD

A woman, whom is struggling with ADHD

Attention Deficit
At least six of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least six months to a degree that it is maladaptive and inconsistent with the developmental level of the individual:

Often fails to give close attention to detail or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities.

Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or playing activities.

Often does not seem to listen to what is being said to him or her.

Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores or  duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions).

Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities.

Often avoids or strongly dislikes tasks (such as schoolwork or homework) that require sustained mental effort.

Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g. school assignments, pencils, books etc).

Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli.

Is often forgetful in daily situations.

Hyperactivity and Impulsivity
At least four of the following symptoms of hyperactivity impulsivity have persisted for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with the developmental level of the individual.

Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat.

Leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected.

Often runs about or climbs excessively in situations where it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness).

Often has difficultly playing or engaging in leisure activity quietly.

Impulsivity: Often blurts out answers to questions before the questions have been completed.

Often has difficulty waiting in lines or waiting turn in games or group situations.

Typical ADHD Behaviors:
Gets bored easily.
Is disorganized.
Is forgetful.
Can’t always inhibit behavior.
Can’t always persist with tasks.

ADHD Treatment Procedures & Neuro-Cognitive Interventions

Major Treatment Methods:
Behavioral Modification.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.
Psycho-educational Methods.
Social Skills Training.
Family & Individual Therapy.
Neuro-Cognitive Intervention.

Behavior Modification:
Contingency Management.
Response Costs.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

Ritalin/Ritalin SR.
Dexedrine Spansule.


Parent Education Groups (C.O.P.E.)
Education of Child.
Education of Teachers and other professionals.

Behavior Modification.
Strengths: Shapes childs behavior to desired behavior and outcomes.
Weaknesses: Requires constant effort and much time, yields limited long-term results.

Family Therapy.
Strengths: Enhances family communication and addresses system behavior patterns, helps family take pressure off child and develop support system within family.
Weaknesses: Part of solution but not the answer.

Parent Education
Strengths: Lots of information support from other parents, reduces guilt, increases self esteem.
Weaknesses: Not complete answer, requires time, family flexibility and consistency.

Marital Therapy:
Strengths: Helps parents address unresolved issues that negatively impact child, helps parent create positive communication patterns that helps child organize life, helps parents cope with pressure of ADHD on marriage.
Weaknesses: Requires commitment from parents, only part of the answer.


Strengths: Helps child focus and concentrate, Helps child control impulses and control his life.
Weaknesses: Not permanent, side effects, continuous cost.

Neuro-Feedback (Biofeedback):
Strengths: Helps child focus, concentrate and organize life, it is a learned behavior.
Weaknesses: Not always effective, time requirement, expensive, needs more empirical support.

Major Treatment Modalities:
Medical Management.
Contingency Management.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.
Family Therapy.
Neuro-Cognitive Therapy.

Biofeedback Treatment Procedure:
30-40 Sessions of EEG Biofeedback Designed to Suppress Theta & Enhance Beta and maintain sustained Eustress.
Cognitive/Behavioral Therapy relying heavily on behavioral shaping and modeling.
Play therapy.
Educational Remediation.
Parent Training & Support.
Medication in worst cases.

Assessing Attention Span:
Put Child Under Task Demand.
Observe EEG Data Under Process.
Mark Point of Consistent Theta Elevation.

EEG Biofeedback Procedure:
Monopolar Placement of Electrode on CZ or Bipolar Placement Between CZ & PZ.
Initial Phase of Training Consists of Training focused on Suppression of Theta followed by Beta Enhancement.
Considerable Effort is Made to Make Procedure Fun and Playful for Child.
An Effort is Made to Gradually Shape the Length of Attention Span and Help Devise a study procedure that meets child’s attentional style.
Cognitive Therapy Tasks are added to Procedure to Put Child Under Task Demand Load.
Child is Asked to Report on His/Her own Behavior in School at Every Session.

Rules of ADHD Management:
1. Overwhelm = Failure.
2. Never place child with a teacher or individual who sees ADHD as a personality flaw.
3. If task is rewarding they will succeed.
4. Do not force ADHD to complete boring tasks.
5. Self-Esteem comes before algebra.
6. Don’t let fears for child affect your judgment.
7. ADHD Children need to know there are consistent rules and consequences.
8. ADHD kids need the same thing other kids need just much more of it.
9. Participatory learning is their mode.
10. Individualized instructions is a must in problem areas.
11. Work must be made interesting.
12. Contingency based strategies must be applied fairly and in a non-shaming or
non-effacing manner.
13. Ingenuity, creativity & kindness is required.
14. Homework causes more problems than it is worth.
15. Compensate and help compensate.

-By Dr. Ranjie Singh